How to Check System Configuration and Hardware Information on Linux

Users can easily check the configuration of the system hardware on a Windows machine by opening the Computer Information app.

This can be easily verified on the Linux machine via the GUI. But on a headless Linux system it is not so easy to verify this information.

Linux has plenty of commands to check for system configuration and hardware information.

But not all tools will show you the same information, each tool is designed for a specific purpose and they do their job well.

Some of these commands provide all the information. We will show you all the commands and their details.

On Linux, most system hardware information is stored under the “/proc” file system.

What’s proc filesystem (procfs)

The proc filesystem (procfs) is a special filesystem in Unix-like operating systems that presents information about processes and other system information.

It’s sometimes referred to as a process information pseudo-file system. It doesn’t contain ‘real’ files but run time system information (e.g. system memory, devices mounted, hardware configuration, etc).

1) How to Check CPU and Processing Units Using the lscpu Command

The lscpu command display information about the CPU and processing units. It gathers CPU architecture information from sysfs, and other information from /proc/cpuinfo file.

The below output shows the following information, for example, the number of CPUs, threads, cores, sockets, and Non-Uniform Memory Access (NUMA) nodes. There is also information about the CPU caches and cache sharing, family, model, bogoMIPS, byte order, and stepping.

$ lscpu
Architecture:                    x86_64
CPU op-mode(s):                  32-bit, 64-bit
Byte Order:                      Little Endian
Address sizes:                   39 bits physical, 48 bits virtual
CPU(s):                          8
On-line CPU(s) list:             0-7
Thread(s) per core:              2
Core(s) per socket:              4
Socket(s):                       1
NUMA node(s):                    1
Vendor ID:                       GenuineIntel
CPU family:                      6
Model:                           94
Model name:                      Intel(R) Core(TM) i7-6700HQ CPU @ 2.60GHz
Stepping:                        3
CPU MHz:                         800.059
CPU max MHz:                     3500.0000
CPU min MHz:                     800.0000
BogoMIPS:                        5186.00
Virtualization:                  VT-x
L1d cache:                       128 KiB
L1i cache:                       128 KiB
L2 cache:                        1 MiB
L3 cache:                        6 MiB
NUMA node0 CPU(s):               0-7
Vulnerability L1tf:              Mitigation; PTE Inversion; VMX conditional cache flushes, SMT vulnerable
Vulnerability Mds:               Mitigation; Clear CPU buffers; SMT vulnerable
Vulnerability Meltdown:          Mitigation; PTI
Vulnerability Spec store bypass: Mitigation; Speculative Store Bypass disabled via prctl and seccomp
Vulnerability Spectre v1:        Mitigation; usercopy/swapgs barriers and __user pointer sanitization
Vulnerability Spectre v2:        Mitigation; Full generic retpoline, IBPB conditional, IBRS_FW, STIBP conditional, RSB filling
Flags:                           fpu vme de pse tsc msr pae mce cx8 apic sep mtrr pge mca cmov pat pse36 clflush dts acpi mmx fxsr sse sse2 ss ht tm pbe syscall nx pdpe1gb rdtscp lm constant_tsc art arch_perfmon
                                  pebs bts rep_good nopl xtopology nonstop_tsc cpuid aperfmperf tsc_known_freq pni pclmulqdq dtes64 monitor ds_cpl vmx est tm2 ssse3 sdbg fma cx16 xtpr pdcm pcid sse4_1 sse4_2 x2a
                                 pic movbe popcnt tsc_deadline_timer aes xsave avx f16c rdrand lahf_lm abm 3dnowprefetch cpuid_fault epb invpcid_single pti ssbd ibrs ibpb stibp tpr_shadow vnmi flexpriority ept v
                                 pid ept_ad fsgsbase tsc_adjust bmi1 hle avx2 smep bmi2 erms invpcid rtm mpx rdseed adx smap clflushopt intel_pt xsaveopt xsavec xgetbv1 xsaves dtherm ida arat pln pts hwp hwp_not
                                 ify hwp_act_window hwp_epp md_clear flush_l1d

The above command shows a consolited output of CPU processor and run the following command to see each CPU processor information.

$ cat /proc/cpuinfo

You can easily count the number of CPUs using the following command.

$ grep pro /proc/cpuinfo -c
8

2) How to Check Memory Information Using the free Command

The free command is widely used by Linux administrator to check Linux system memory, it’s very simple and displays the total amount of free and used physical and swap memory in the system, as well as the buffers and caches used by the kernel.

$ free
              total        used        free      shared  buff/cache   available
Mem:          15867        5362        3962        3253        6542        6921
Swap:         17454          19       17434
Total:        33322        5381       21397

2a) How to Check Memory Information Using the /proc/meminfo file

The /proc/meminfo is a virtual text file that contains a large amount of valuable information about the systems RAM usage.

It’s report the amount of free and used memory (both physical and swap) on the system.

$ cat /proc/meminfo
MemTotal:       16248580 kB
MemFree:         4752704 kB
MemAvailable:    7765292 kB
Buffers:          358928 kB
Cached:          5531420 kB
SwapCached:         5092 kB
Active:          6536872 kB
Inactive:        4293640 kB
Active(anon):    4799788 kB
Inactive(anon):  2969076 kB
Active(file):    1737084 kB
Inactive(file):  1324564 kB
Unevictable:          72 kB
Mlocked:              72 kB
SwapTotal:      17873388 kB
SwapFree:       17853276 kB
Dirty:               416 kB
Writeback:             0 kB
AnonPages:       4935676 kB
Mapped:          1705744 kB
Shmem:           2828700 kB
Slab:             409720 kB
SReclaimable:     290028 kB
SUnreclaim:       119692 kB
KernelStack:       20800 kB
PageTables:        51820 kB
NFS_Unstable:          0 kB
Bounce:                0 kB
WritebackTmp:          0 kB
CommitLimit:    25997676 kB
Committed_AS:   16015836 kB
VmallocTotal:   34359738367 kB
VmallocUsed:           0 kB
VmallocChunk:          0 kB
Percpu:             3136 kB
HardwareCorrupted:     0 kB
AnonHugePages:         0 kB
ShmemHugePages:        0 kB
ShmemPmdMapped:        0 kB
HugePages_Total:       0
HugePages_Free:        0
HugePages_Rsvd:        0
HugePages_Surp:        0
Hugepagesize:       2048 kB
Hugetlb:               0 kB
DirectMap4k:      364816 kB
DirectMap2M:     9945088 kB
DirectMap1G:     7340032 kB

Run the below command to see the memory output with GB instead of KB.

$ awk '$3=="kB"{$2=$2/1024**2;$3="GB";} 1' /proc/meminfo | column -t

Run the below command to see only total memory output with GB instead of KB.

$ awk '$3=="kB"{$2=$2/1024**2;$3="GB";} 1' /proc/meminfo | grep "MemTotal:" | column -t

MemTotal:  15.4959  GB

Run the below command to see the memory output with MB instead of KB.

$ wk '$3=="kB"{$2=$2/1024;$3="MB";} 1' /proc/meminfo | column -t

Run the below command to see only total memory output with MB instead of KB.

awk '$3=="kB"{$2=$2/1024;$3="MB";} 1' /proc/meminfo | grep "MemTotal:" | column -t

MemTotal:  15867.8  MB

2b) How to Check Memory Information Using the vmstat Command

The vmstate command report virtual memory statistics. It reports information about processes, memory, paging, block IO, traps, disks and cpu activity.

$ vmstat -s
     16248580 K total memory
      5450792 K used memory
      6674780 K active memory
      4715692 K inactive memory
      4186292 K free memory
       361764 K buffer memory
      6249732 K swap cache
     17873388 K total swap
        20112 K used swap
     17853276 K free swap
      3263070 non-nice user cpu ticks
         5866 nice user cpu ticks
      1227150 system cpu ticks
      4786921 idle cpu ticks
         7334 IO-wait cpu ticks
       110603 IRQ cpu ticks
       117162 softirq cpu ticks
            0 stolen cpu ticks
      4267698 pages paged in
     14447480 pages paged out
          140 pages swapped in
         3912 pages swapped out
    109198652 interrupts
    405310013 CPU context switches
   1569730175 boot time
        36197 forks

3) How to Check PCI Bus Devices Information Using the lspci Command

The lspci stands for list PCI devices. lspci command is used to display information about PCI buses in the system and hardware devices that are connected to PCI and PCI bus.

It will display information about model number/chip details for devices like PCI bridge, VGA controller, Ethernet controller, USB controller, Audio device, IDE interface, etc,.,

$ lspci

00:00.0 Host bridge: Intel Corporation Xeon E3-1200 v5/E3-1500 v5/6th Gen Core Processor Host Bridge/DRAM Registers (rev 07)
00:01.0 PCI bridge: Intel Corporation Xeon E3-1200 v5/E3-1500 v5/6th Gen Core Processor PCIe Controller (x16) (rev 07)
00:02.0 VGA compatible controller: Intel Corporation HD Graphics 530 (rev 06)
00:14.0 USB controller: Intel Corporation 100 Series/C230 Series Chipset Family USB 3.0 xHCI Controller (rev 31)
00:16.0 Communication controller: Intel Corporation 100 Series/C230 Series Chipset Family MEI Controller #1 (rev 31)
00:17.0 SATA controller: Intel Corporation HM170/QM170 Chipset SATA Controller [AHCI Mode] (rev 31)
00:1c.0 PCI bridge: Intel Corporation 100 Series/C230 Series Chipset Family PCI Express Root Port #2 (rev f1)
00:1c.2 PCI bridge: Intel Corporation 100 Series/C230 Series Chipset Family PCI Express Root Port #3 (rev f1)
00:1c.3 PCI bridge: Intel Corporation 100 Series/C230 Series Chipset Family PCI Express Root Port #4 (rev f1)
00:1d.0 PCI bridge: Intel Corporation 100 Series/C230 Series Chipset Family PCI Express Root Port #9 (rev f1)
00:1f.0 ISA bridge: Intel Corporation HM170 Chipset LPC/eSPI Controller (rev 31)
00:1f.2 Memory controller: Intel Corporation 100 Series/C230 Series Chipset Family Power Management Controller (rev 31)
00:1f.3 Audio device: Intel Corporation 100 Series/C230 Series Chipset Family HD Audio Controller (rev 31)
00:1f.4 SMBus: Intel Corporation 100 Series/C230 Series Chipset Family SMBus (rev 31)
01:00.0 3D controller: NVIDIA Corporation GM107M [GeForce GTX 960M] (rev a2)
07:00.0 SD Host controller: O2 Micro, Inc. SD/MMC Card Reader Controller (rev 01)
08:00.0 Network controller: Intel Corporation Wireless 8260 (rev 3a)
09:00.0 Ethernet controller: Realtek Semiconductor Co., Ltd. RTL8111/8168/8411 PCI Express Gigabit Ethernet Controller (rev 15)
0a:00.0 Non-Volatile memory controller: Samsung Electronics Co Ltd NVMe SSD Controller SM951/PM951 (rev 01)

Details of the above output: Each line comes with three parts, it’s described below in detail.

  • PCI bus slot number: 09:00.0
  • PCI slot name: Ethernet controller
  • Device Manufacturer Name and Model Number: Realtek Semiconductor Co., Ltd. RTL8111/8168/8411 PCI Express Gigabit Ethernet Controller (rev 15)

Information on PCI-related devices are stored in the file below.

$ ls -lh /usr/share/hwdata/pci.ids
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1.2M Mar 18  2019 /usr/share/hwdata/pci.ids

4) How to Check scsi Devices Information Using the lsscsi Command

The lsscsi stands for list small Computer System Interface. The lsscsi command lists information about SCSI/Sata devices attached to the system.

It’s scans the sysfs (mounted at /sys) pseudo file system to gather information, which was introduced in the 2.6 Linux kernel series.

$ lsscsi
[2:0:0:0]    disk    ATA      WDC WD10SPCX-24H 1A02  /dev/sda 
[N:0:1:1]    disk    SAMSUNG MZVLV256HCHP-000L2__1              /dev/nvme0n1

5) How to Check usb Devices Information Using the lsusb Command

The lsusb stands for list Universal Serial Bus or USB. It’s display information about USB buses in the system and the devices connected to them.

This will display a list of all USB devices connected to your computer such as keyboards, mouse, printers, disk drives, network adapters, etc,.

$ lsusb

Bus 002 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0003 Linux Foundation 3.0 root hub
Bus 001 Device 003: ID 174f:14e8 Syntek 
Bus 001 Device 004: ID 8087:0a2b Intel Corp. 
Bus 001 Device 002: ID 17ef:6053 Lenovo 
Bus 001 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0002 Linux Foundation 2.0 root hub

Details of the above output: Each line comes with four parts, it’s described below in detail.

  • Bus 001: Bus Number
  • Device 001: Device Number
  • ID 1d6b:0002: The ID comes with two parts. The first part is showing “Manufacturer ID” and the second part is showing “Device ID”.
  • Linux Foundation 2.0 root hub: Device Manufacturer Name and Model Number.

Information on USB-related devices are stored in the file below.

$ ls -lh /usr/share/hwdata/usb.ids
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 595K Mar 18  2019 /usr/share/hwdata/usb.ids

6) How to Check Black Devices Information Using the lsblk Command

The lsblkk stands for list block devices. It’s display information about block devices (except RAM disks). Block devices are hard disk partition, flash drives, CD-ROM, optical drives, etc,.

$ lsblk

NAME        MAJ:MIN RM   SIZE RO TYPE MOUNTPOINT
loop0         7:0    0  89.5M  1 loop /var/lib/snapd/snap/core/6130
loop1         7:1    0 108.9M  1 loop /var/lib/snapd/snap/odrive-unofficial/2
loop2         7:2    0    91M  1 loop /var/lib/snapd/snap/core/6405
sda           8:0    0 931.5G  0 disk 
├─sda1        8:1    0   128M  0 part 
└─sda2        8:2    0 931.4G  0 part /run/media/daygeek/DATA
nvme0n1     259:0    0 238.5G  0 disk 
├─nvme0n1p1 259:1    0 221.4G  0 part /
└─nvme0n1p2 259:2    0    17G  0 part [SWAP]

7) How to Check Linux System Hardware Information Using the Dmidecode Command

Dmidecode is a tool which reads a computer’s DMI (stands for Desktop Management Interface) (some say SMBIOS – stands for System Management BIOS) table contents and display system hardware information in a human-readable format.

This table contains a description of the system’s hardware components, as well as other useful information such as serial number, Manufacturer information, Release Date, and BIOS revision, etc,.

$ sudo dmidecode -t system
               
# dmidecode 3.2
Getting SMBIOS data from sysfs.
SMBIOS 2.8 present.

Handle 0x0001, DMI type 1, 27 bytes
System Information
	Manufacturer: LENOVO
	Product Name: 80NV
	Version: Lenovo ideapad Y700-15ISK
	Serial Number: PF0MH3C2
	UUID: 19e16f60-6184-1ee6-g0a0-c11b57dd58c
	Wake-up Type: Power Switch
	SKU Number: LENOVO_MT_80NV_BU_idea_FM_Lenovo ideapad Y700-15ISK
	Family: IDEAPAD

Handle 0x001B, DMI type 15, 29 bytes
System Event Log
	Area Length: 0 bytes
	Header Start Offset: 0x0000
	Header Length: 8192 bytes
	Data Start Offset: 0x2000
	Access Method: General-purpose non-volatile data functions
	Access Address: 0x0000
	Status: Valid, Not Full
	Change Token: 0x12345678
	Header Format: OEM-specific
	Supported Log Type Descriptors: 3
	Descriptor 1: POST memory resize
	Data Format 1: None
	Descriptor 2: POST error
	Data Format 2: POST results bitmap
	Descriptor 3: Log area reset/cleared
	Data Format 3: None

8) How to Check Linux System Hardware Information Using the inxi Command

inxi is a nifty tool to check hardware information on Linux and offers wide range of option to get all the hardware information on Linux system that i never found in any other utility which are available in Linux.

It was forked from the ancient and mindbendingly perverse yet ingenius infobash, by locsmif.

$ inxi -F -x

System:    Host: daygeek-Y700 Kernel: 4.19.66-1-MANJARO x86_64 bits: 64 compiler: gcc v: 9.1.0 Desktop: Gnome 3.32.2 
           Distro: Manjaro Linux 
Machine:   Type: Laptop System: LENOVO product: 80NV v: Lenovo ideapad Y700-15ISK serial:  
           Mobo: LENOVO model: Allsparks 5A v: SDK0J40709 WIN serial:  UEFI [Legacy]: LENOVO v: CDCN35WW 
           date: 03/29/2016 
Battery:   ID-1: BAT0 charge: 40.7 Wh condition: 51.5/60.0 Wh (86%) model: SMP L14M4P23 status: Charging 
CPU:       Topology: Quad Core model: Intel Core i7-6700HQ bits: 64 type: MT MCP arch: Skylake-S rev: 3 L2 cache: 6144 KiB 
           flags: avx avx2 lm nx pae sse sse2 sse3 sse4_1 sse4_2 ssse3 vmx bogomips: 41488 
           Speed: 2476 MHz min/max: 800/3500 MHz Core speeds (MHz): 1: 2291 2: 2272 3: 2265 4: 2288 5: 2291 6: 2319 7: 2289 
           8: 2288 
Graphics:  Device-1: Intel HD Graphics 530 vendor: Lenovo driver: i915 v: kernel bus ID: 00:02.0 
           Device-2: NVIDIA GM107M [GeForce GTX 960M] vendor: Lenovo driver: nouveau v: kernel bus ID: 01:00.0 
           Display: x11 server: X.org 1.20.5 driver: intel,modesetting resolution:  
           OpenGL: renderer: Mesa DRI Intel HD Graphics 530 (Skylake GT2) v: 4.5 Mesa 19.1.4 direct render: Yes 
Audio:     Device-1: Intel 100 Series/C230 Series Family HD Audio vendor: Lenovo driver: snd_hda_intel v: kernel 
           bus ID: 00:1f.3 
           Sound Server: ALSA v: k4.19.66-1-MANJARO 
Network:   Device-1: Intel Wireless 8260 driver: iwlwifi v: kernel port: 5000 bus ID: 08:00.0 
           IF: wlp8s0 state: up mac: e4:a7:a0:32:fc:e9 
           Device-2: Realtek RTL8111/8168/8411 PCI Express Gigabit Ethernet vendor: Lenovo driver: r8168 v: 8.047.02-NAPI 
           port: 4000 bus ID: 09:00.0 
           IF: enp9s0 state: down mac: c8:5b:76:4d:d4:5c 
Drives:    Local Storage: total: 1.14 TiB used: 854.18 GiB (73.0%) 
           ID-1: /dev/nvme0n1 vendor: Samsung model: MZVLV256HCHP-000L2 size: 238.47 GiB 
           ID-2: /dev/sda vendor: Western Digital model: WD10SPCX-24HWST1 size: 931.51 GiB temp: 38 C 
Partition: ID-1: / size: 216.95 GiB used: 172.16 GiB (79.4%) fs: ext4 dev: /dev/nvme0n1p1 
           ID-2: swap-1 size: 17.05 GiB used: 19.6 MiB (0.1%) fs: swap dev: /dev/nvme0n1p2 
Sensors:   System Temperatures: cpu: 44.0 C mobo: N/A gpu: nouveau temp: 44 C 
           Fan Speeds (RPM): N/A 
Info:      Processes: 294 Uptime: 1d 15h 07m Memory: 15.50 GiB used: 7.20 GiB (46.5%) Init: systemd Compilers: gcc: 9.1.0 
           Shell: bash v: 5.0.7 inxi: 3.0.35 

9) How to Check Linux System Hardware Information Using the lshw Command

lshw (stands for Hardware Lister) is a small nifty tool that generates detailed reports about various hardware components on the machine such as memory configuration, firmware version, mainboard configuration, CPU version and speed, cache configuration, usb, network card, graphics cards, multimedia, printers, bus speed, etc.

$ sudo lshw -short

H/W path       Device  Class          Description
=================================================
                       system         80NV (LENOVO_MT_80NV_BU_idea_FM_Lenovo ideapad Y700-15ISK)
/0                     bus            Allsparks 5A
/0/0                   memory         128KiB BIOS
/0/4                   processor      Intel(R) Core(TM) i7-6700HQ CPU @ 2.60GHz
/0/4/6                 memory         128KiB L1 cache
/0/4/7                 memory         1MiB L2 cache
/0/4/8                 memory         6MiB L3 cache
/0/5                   memory         128KiB L1 cache
/0/1c                  memory         16GiB System Memory
/0/1c/0                memory         8GiB SODIMM DDR4 Synchronous 2133 MHz (0.5 ns)
/0/1c/1                memory         [empty]
/0/1c/2                memory         8GiB SODIMM DDR4 Synchronous 2133 MHz (0.5 ns)
/0/1c/3                memory         [empty]
/0/100                 bridge         Xeon E3-1200 v5/E3-1500 v5/6th Gen Core Processor Host Bridge/DRAM Registers
/0/100/1               bridge         Xeon E3-1200 v5/E3-1500 v5/6th Gen Core Processor PCIe Controller (x16)
/0/100/1/0             display        GM107M [GeForce GTX 960M]
/0/100/2               display        HD Graphics 530
/0/100/14              bus            100 Series/C230 Series Chipset Family USB 3.0 xHCI Controller
/0/100/14/0    usb1    bus            xHCI Host Controller
/0/100/14/0/1          input          Lenovo Wireless Optical Mouse N100
/0/100/14/0/6          multimedia     Lenovo EasyCamera
/0/100/14/0/b          communication  Bluetooth wireless interface
/0/100/14/1    usb2    bus            xHCI Host Controller
/0/100/16              communication  100 Series/C230 Series Chipset Family MEI Controller #1
/0/100/17              storage        HM170/QM170 Chipset SATA Controller [AHCI Mode]
/0/100/1c              bridge         100 Series/C230 Series Chipset Family PCI Express Root Port #2
/0/100/1c/0            generic        SD/MMC Card Reader Controller
/0/100/1c.2            bridge         100 Series/C230 Series Chipset Family PCI Express Root Port #3
/0/100/1c.2/0  wlp8s0  network        Wireless 8260
/0/100/1c.3            bridge         100 Series/C230 Series Chipset Family PCI Express Root Port #4
/0/100/1c.3/0  enp9s0  network        RTL8111/8168/8411 PCI Express Gigabit Ethernet Controller
/0/100/1d              bridge         100 Series/C230 Series Chipset Family PCI Express Root Port #9
/0/100/1d/0            storage        NVMe SSD Controller SM951/PM951
/0/100/1f              bridge         HM170 Chipset LPC/eSPI Controller
/0/100/1f.2            memory         Memory controller
/0/100/1f.3            multimedia     100 Series/C230 Series Chipset Family HD Audio Controller
/0/100/1f.4            bus            100 Series/C230 Series Chipset Family SMBus

10) How to Check Linux System Hardware Information Using the hwinfo Command

hwinfo stands for hardware information tool is another great utility that used to probe for the hardware present in the system and display detailed information about varies hardware components in human readable format.

It reports information about CPU, RAM, keyboard, mouse, graphics card, sound, storage, network interface, disk, partition, bios, and bridge, etc,., This tool could display more detailed information among others like lshw, dmidecode, inxi, etc,.

$ hwinfo --short

cpu:                                                            
                       Intel(R) Core(TM) i7-6700HQ CPU @ 2.60GHz, 2250 MHz
                       Intel(R) Core(TM) i7-6700HQ CPU @ 2.60GHz, 2285 MHz
                       Intel(R) Core(TM) i7-6700HQ CPU @ 2.60GHz, 2466 MHz
                       Intel(R) Core(TM) i7-6700HQ CPU @ 2.60GHz, 2280 MHz
                       Intel(R) Core(TM) i7-6700HQ CPU @ 2.60GHz, 2156 MHz
                       Intel(R) Core(TM) i7-6700HQ CPU @ 2.60GHz, 2446 MHz
                       Intel(R) Core(TM) i7-6700HQ CPU @ 2.60GHz, 2261 MHz
                       Intel(R) Core(TM) i7-6700HQ CPU @ 2.60GHz, 2257 MHz
keyboard:
  /dev/input/event4    AT Translated Set 2 keyboard
mouse:
  /dev/input/mice      Lenovo Wireless Optical Mouse N100
  /dev/input/mice      SynPS/2 Synaptics TouchPad
monitor:
                       LQ156D1JX03 LCD Monitor
graphics card:
                       nVidia GM107M [GeForce GTX 960M]
                       Intel HD Graphics 530
sound:
                       Intel Sunrise Point-H HD Audio
storage:
                       Intel Sunrise Point-H SATA Controller [AHCI mode]
                       Samsung Electronics NVMe SSD Controller SM951/PM951
network:
  enp9s0               Realtek RTL8111/8168/8411 PCI Express Gigabit Ethernet Controller
  wlp8s0               Intel Wireless 8260
network interface:
  lo                   Loopback network interface
  enp9s0               Ethernet network interface
  wlp8s0               Ethernet network interface
disk:
  /dev/nvme0n1         Samsung Electronics NVMe SSD Controller SM951/PM951
  /dev/sda             WDC WD10SPCX-24H
partition:
  /dev/nvme0n1p1       Partition
  /dev/nvme0n1p2       Partition
  /dev/sda1            Partition
  /dev/sda2            Partition
usb controller:
                       Intel Sunrise Point-H USB 3.0 xHCI Controller
bios:
                       BIOS
bridge:
                       Intel Sunrise Point-H PCI Express Root Port #2
                       Intel Sunrise Point-H LPC Controller
                       Intel Skylake PCIe Controller (x16)
                       Intel Sunrise Point-H PCI Express Root Port #4
                       Intel Skylake Host Bridge/DRAM Registers
                       Intel Sunrise Point-H PCI Express Root Port #9
                       Intel Sunrise Point-H PCI Express Root Port #3
hub:
                       Linux Foundation 2.0 root hub
                       Linux Foundation 3.0 root hub
memory:
                       Main Memory
bluetooth:
                       Intel Bluetooth Device
unknown:
                       FPU
                       DMA controller
                       PIC
                       Keyboard controller
                       Intel Sunrise Point-H PMC
                       Intel Sunrise Point-H CSME HECI #1
                       O2 Micro SD/MMC Card Reader Controller
                       Intel Sunrise Point-H SMBus
  /dev/input/event8    Syntek Lenovo EasyCamera

11) How to Check Partition Information Using the df Command

df command stands for Disk Filesystem. It shows detailed report of disk space usage on the Linux system.

It displays the amount of total disk space, available disk space, used disk space, disk used percentage and mounted filesystem on the Linux system.

$ df -h
Filesystem      Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
dev             7.8G     0  7.8G   0% /dev
run             7.8G  1.7M  7.8G   1% /run
/dev/nvme0n1p1  217G  173G   34G  84% /
tmpfs           7.8G  662M  7.2G   9% /dev/shm
tmpfs           7.8G     0  7.8G   0% /sys/fs/cgroup
tmpfs           7.8G   39M  7.8G   1% /tmp
/dev/loop0       90M   90M     0 100% /var/lib/snapd/snap/core/6130
/dev/loop1      109M  109M     0 100% /var/lib/snapd/snap/odrive-unofficial/2
/dev/loop2       91M   91M     0 100% /var/lib/snapd/snap/core/6405
tmpfs           1.6G   16K  1.6G   1% /run/user/120
tmpfs           1.6G   60K  1.6G   1% /run/user/1000
/dev/sda2       932G  683G  250G  74% /run/media/daygeek/DATA

12) How to Check Added Hard Disk Size Using the fdisk Command

fdisk stands for fixed disk or format disk is a cli utility that allow users to perform following actions on disks. It allows us to view, create, resize, delete, move and copy the partitions.

It understands MBR, Sun, SGI and BSD partition tables and it doesn’t understand GUID Partition Table (GPT) and it is not designed for large partitions.

fdisk allows us to create a maximum of four primary partitions per disk. One of these may be an extended partition and it holds multiple logical partitions.

$ sudo fdisk -l
[sudo] password for daygeek:                
Disk /dev/nvme0n1: 238.49 GiB, 256060514304 bytes, 500118192 sectors
Disk model: SAMSUNG MZVLV256HCHP-000L2              
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disklabel type: dos
Disk identifier: 0x3000191b

Device         Boot     Start       End   Sectors   Size Id Type
/dev/nvme0n1p1           2048 464356660 464354613 221.4G 83 Linux
/dev/nvme0n1p2      464356661 500103449  35746789    17G 82 Linux swap / Solaris


Disk /dev/sda: 931.53 GiB, 1000204886016 bytes, 1953525168 sectors
Disk model: WDC WD10SPCX-24H
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 4096 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 4096 bytes / 4096 bytes
Disklabel type: gpt
Disk identifier: 29F85D02-5B01-435D-8C98-42B3CC2E38E1

Device      Start        End    Sectors   Size Type
/dev/sda1      34     262177     262144   128M Microsoft reserved
/dev/sda2  264192 1953523711 1953259520 931.4G Microsoft basic data

Partition 1 does not start on physical sector boundary.


Disk /dev/loop1: 108.87 MiB, 114135040 bytes, 222920 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes


Disk /dev/loop2: 90.102 MiB, 95416320 bytes, 186360 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes


Disk /dev/loop3: 89 MiB, 93327360 bytes, 182280 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes

13) How to Check Mounted File Systems in Linux

These commands display the list of currently mounted file systems with details.

$ cat /etc/mtab
or
$ mount | column -t
or
$ cat /proc/mounts

proc /proc proc rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime 0 0
sys /sys sysfs rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime 0 0
dev /dev devtmpfs rw,nosuid,relatime,size=8115748k,nr_inodes=2028937,mode=755 0 0
run /run tmpfs rw,nosuid,nodev,relatime,mode=755 0 0
/dev/nvme0n1p1 / ext4 rw,noatime 0 0
securityfs /sys/kernel/security securityfs rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime 0 0
tmpfs /dev/shm tmpfs rw,nosuid,nodev 0 0
devpts /dev/pts devpts rw,nosuid,noexec,relatime,gid=5,mode=620,ptmxmode=000 0 0
tmpfs /sys/fs/cgroup tmpfs ro,nosuid,nodev,noexec,mode=755 0 0
cgroup2 /sys/fs/cgroup/unified cgroup2 rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime,nsdelegate 0 0
cgroup /sys/fs/cgroup/systemd cgroup rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime,xattr,name=systemd 0 0
pstore /sys/fs/pstore pstore rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime 0 0
bpf /sys/fs/bpf bpf rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime,mode=700 0 0
cgroup /sys/fs/cgroup/perf_event cgroup rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime,perf_event 0 0
cgroup /sys/fs/cgroup/hugetlb cgroup rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime,hugetlb 0 0
cgroup /sys/fs/cgroup/rdma cgroup rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime,rdma 0 0
cgroup /sys/fs/cgroup/freezer cgroup rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime,freezer 0 0
cgroup /sys/fs/cgroup/memory cgroup rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime,memory 0 0
cgroup /sys/fs/cgroup/cpu,cpuacct cgroup rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime,cpu,cpuacct 0 0
cgroup /sys/fs/cgroup/net_cls,net_prio cgroup rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime,net_cls,net_prio 0 0
cgroup /sys/fs/cgroup/pids cgroup rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime,pids 0 0
cgroup /sys/fs/cgroup/devices cgroup rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime,devices 0 0
cgroup /sys/fs/cgroup/cpuset cgroup rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime,cpuset 0 0
cgroup /sys/fs/cgroup/blkio cgroup rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime,blkio 0 0
systemd-1 /proc/sys/fs/binfmt_misc autofs rw,relatime,fd=32,pgrp=1,timeout=0,minproto=5,maxproto=5,direct,pipe_ino=13363 0 0
hugetlbfs /dev/hugepages hugetlbfs rw,relatime,pagesize=2M 0 0
mqueue /dev/mqueue mqueue rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime 0 0
debugfs /sys/kernel/debug debugfs rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime 0 0
binfmt_misc /proc/sys/fs/binfmt_misc binfmt_misc rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime 0 0
configfs /sys/kernel/config configfs rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime 0 0
tmpfs /tmp tmpfs rw,nosuid,nodev 0 0
/dev/loop1 /var/lib/snapd/snap/odrive-unofficial/2 squashfs ro,nodev,relatime 0 0
/dev/loop2 /var/lib/snapd/snap/core/6405 squashfs ro,nodev,relatime 0 0
tmpfs /run/user/120 tmpfs rw,nosuid,nodev,relatime,size=1624856k,mode=700,uid=120,gid=120 0 0
tmpfs /run/user/1000 tmpfs rw,nosuid,nodev,relatime,size=1624856k,mode=700,uid=1000,gid=1000 0 0
gvfsd-fuse /run/user/1000/gvfs fuse.gvfsd-fuse rw,nosuid,nodev,relatime,user_id=1000,group_id=1000 0 0
fusectl /sys/fs/fuse/connections fusectl rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime 0 0
/dev/sda2 /run/media/daygeek/DATA fuseblk rw,nosuid,nodev,relatime,user_id=0,group_id=0,default_permissions,allow_other,blksize=4096 0 0
/dev/loop3 /var/lib/snapd/snap/core/7713 squashfs ro,nodev,relatime 0 0

14) How to Check WWN Number of HBA Card Using the fdisk Command

Systool is a tool that uses APIs provided by libsysfs to gather information, view system device information by bus, class, and topology. It runs only on linux systems running kernels 2.5 or later, with the sysfs filesystem mounted.

Run the following command to find the WWN numbers for your fc host.

# systool -c fc_host -v | grep port_name

    port_name           = "0x500143802426baf2"
    port_name           = "0x500143802426baf3"
    port_name           = "0x500143802426baf4"
    port_name           = "0x500143802426baf5"

15) How to Check Sata Disk Information Using the hdparm Command

The hdparm command gets information about sata devices (hard disks).

$ sudo hdparm -i /dev/sda

/dev/sda:

 Model=WDC WD10SPCX-24HWST1, FwRev=02.01A02, SerialNo=WD-WXD1A36RE0LP
 Config={ HardSect NotMFM HdSw>15uSec SpinMotCtl Fixed DTR>5Mbs FmtGapReq }
 RawCHS=16383/16/63, TrkSize=0, SectSize=0, ECCbytes=0
 BuffType=unknown, BuffSize=16384kB, MaxMultSect=16, MultSect=off
 CurCHS=16383/16/63, CurSects=16514064, LBA=yes, LBAsects=1953525168
 IORDY=on/off, tPIO={min:120,w/IORDY:120}, tDMA={min:120,rec:120}
 PIO modes:  pio0 pio3 pio4 
 DMA modes:  mdma0 mdma1 mdma2 
 UDMA modes: udma0 udma1 udma2 udma3 udma4 udma5 *udma6 
 AdvancedPM=yes: unknown setting WriteCache=enabled
 Drive conforms to: Unspecified:  ATA/ATAPI-1,2,3,4,5,6,7

 * signifies the current active mode

16) How to Check System Hardware Information Using the /sys Filesystem

The kernel expose some DMI information in the /sys virtual filesystem. So we can easily get the machine type by running grep command with following format.

$ sudo grep "" /sys/class/dmi/id/[pbs]*

/sys/class/dmi/id/bios_date:03/29/2016
/sys/class/dmi/id/bios_vendor:LENOVO
/sys/class/dmi/id/bios_version:CDCN35WW
/sys/class/dmi/id/board_asset_tag:NO Asset Tag
/sys/class/dmi/id/board_name:Allsparks 5A
/sys/class/dmi/id/board_serial:PF0MH3C2
/sys/class/dmi/id/board_vendor:LENOVO
/sys/class/dmi/id/board_version:SDK0J40709 WIN
grep: /sys/class/dmi/id/power: Is a directory
/sys/class/dmi/id/product_family:IDEAPAD
/sys/class/dmi/id/product_name:80NV
/sys/class/dmi/id/product_serial:PF0MH3C2
/sys/class/dmi/id/product_sku:LENOVO_MT_80NV_BU_idea_FM_Lenovo ideapad Y700-15ISK
/sys/class/dmi/id/product_uuid:99e78f66-6418-11e6-a0a0-c85b764dd45c
/sys/class/dmi/id/product_version:Lenovo ideapad Y700-15ISK
grep: /sys/class/dmi/id/subsystem: Is a directory
/sys/class/dmi/id/sys_vendor:LENOVO

17) How to Ethernet Device Information Using the ethtool Command

ethtool is used to query and control network device driver and hardware settings, particularly for wired Ethernet devices.

Run the following commands to know about wifi kernel driver, firmware version and bus info.

$ ethtool eth0

Settings for eth0:
	Supported ports: [ TP ]
	Supported link modes:   10baseT/Half 10baseT/Full
	                        100baseT/Half 100baseT/Full
	                        1000baseT/Full
	Supported pause frame use: No
	Supports auto-negotiation: Yes
	Advertised link modes:  10baseT/Half 10baseT/Full
	                        100baseT/Half 100baseT/Full
	                        1000baseT/Full
	Advertised pause frame use: No
	Advertised auto-negotiation: Yes
	Speed: 1000Mb/s
	Duplex: Full
	Port: Twisted Pair
	PHYAD: 2
	Transceiver: internal
	Auto-negotiation: on
	MDI-X: on
	Supports Wake-on: pumbg
	Wake-on: g
	Current message level: 0x00000007 (7)
			       drv probe link
	Link detected: yes

18) How to Manage HP Array Controllers Using the hpacucli Command

Hpacucli is used to create, delete and repair the logical and physical drives on the smart array controllers in HP servers.

$ hpacucli

19) How to View HP Servers Information Using the hponcfg Command

HPONCFG is an online configuration tool used to set up and reconfigure iLO without requiring a reboot of the server operating system. The utility runs in a command-line mode and must be executed from an operating system command line on the local server. HPONCFG enables you to initially configure features exposed through the RBSU or iLO.

$ hponcfg

20) How to View Dell Servers Information Using the getsysinfo Command

The Dell RACADM (Remote Access Controller Admin) utility is a command line tool that allows for remote or local management of Dell Servers.

RACADM commands allow you to view managed system information, perform power operations on the managed system, perform firmware updates, configure settings and more.

$ racadm getsysinfo

21) How to Check if a Linux System is a Physical or a Virtual Machine

These commands allow you to check whether a Linux system is a physical or virtual machine.

There are many ways we can identify this. To do so, go to the following article.

# facter virtual
vmware

$ sudo virt-what
virtualbox
kvm

# imvirt
Physical

Magesh Maruthamuthu

Love to play with all Linux distribution

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