12 Methods To Check The Hard Disk And Hard Drive Partition On Linux

Usually Linux admins check the available hard disk and it’s partitions whenever they want to add a new disks or additional partition in the system.

We used to check the partition table of our hard disk to view the disk partitions.

This will help you to view how many partitions were already created on the disk. Also, it allow us to verify whether we have any free space or not.

In general hard disks can be divided into one or more logical disks called partitions.

Each partitions can be used as a separate disk with its own file system and partition information is stored in a partition table.

It’s a 64-byte data structure. The partition table is part of the master boot record (MBR), which is a small program that is executed when a computer boots.

The partition information are saved in the 0 the sector of the disk. Make a note, all the partitions must be formatted with an appropriate file system before files can be written to it.

This can be verified using the following 12 methods.

  • fdisk: manipulate disk partition table
  • sfdisk: display or manipulate a disk partition table
  • cfdisk: display or manipulate a disk partition table
  • parted: a partition manipulation program
  • lsblk: lsblk lists information about all available or the specified block devices.
  • blkid: locate/print block device attributes.
  • hwinfo: hwinfo stands for hardware information tool is another great utility that used to probe for the hardware present in the system.
  • lshw: lshw is a small tool to extract detailed information on the hardware configuration of the machine.
  • inxi: inxi is a command line system information script built for for console and IRC.
  • lsscsi: list SCSI devices (or hosts) and their attributes
  • cat /proc/partitions:
  • ls -lh /dev/disk/: The directory contains Disk manufacturer name, serial number, partition ID and real block device files, Those were symlink with real block device files.

How To Check Hard Disk And Hard Drive Partition In Linux Using fdisk Command?

fdisk stands for fixed disk or format disk is a cli utility that allow users to perform following actions on disks. It allows us to view, create, resize, delete, move and copy the partitions.

# fdisk -l

Disk /dev/sda: 30 GiB, 32212254720 bytes, 62914560 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disklabel type: dos
Disk identifier: 0xeab59449

Device     Boot    Start      End  Sectors Size Id Type
/dev/sda1  *    20973568 62914559 41940992  20G 83 Linux


Disk /dev/sdb: 10 GiB, 10737418240 bytes, 20971520 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes


Disk /dev/sdc: 10 GiB, 10737418240 bytes, 20971520 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disklabel type: dos
Disk identifier: 0x8cc8f9e5

Device     Boot   Start      End  Sectors Size Id Type
/dev/sdc1          2048  2099199  2097152   1G 83 Linux
/dev/sdc3       4196352  6293503  2097152   1G 83 Linux
/dev/sdc4       6293504 20971519 14678016   7G  5 Extended
/dev/sdc5       6295552  8392703  2097152   1G 83 Linux


Disk /dev/sdd: 10 GiB, 10737418240 bytes, 20971520 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes


Disk /dev/sde: 10 GiB, 10737418240 bytes, 20971520 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes

How To Check Hard Disk And Hard Drive Partition In Linux Using sfdisk Command?

sfdisk is a script-oriented tool for partitioning any block device. sfdisk supports MBR (DOS), GPT, SUN and SGI disk labels, but no longer provides any functionality for CHS (Cylinder-Head-Sector) addressing.

# sfdisk -l

Disk /dev/sda: 30 GiB, 32212254720 bytes, 62914560 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disklabel type: dos
Disk identifier: 0xeab59449

Device     Boot    Start      End  Sectors Size Id Type
/dev/sda1  *    20973568 62914559 41940992  20G 83 Linux


Disk /dev/sdb: 10 GiB, 10737418240 bytes, 20971520 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes


Disk /dev/sdc: 10 GiB, 10737418240 bytes, 20971520 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disklabel type: dos
Disk identifier: 0x8cc8f9e5

Device     Boot   Start      End  Sectors Size Id Type
/dev/sdc1          2048  2099199  2097152   1G 83 Linux
/dev/sdc3       4196352  6293503  2097152   1G 83 Linux
/dev/sdc4       6293504 20971519 14678016   7G  5 Extended
/dev/sdc5       6295552  8392703  2097152   1G 83 Linux


Disk /dev/sdd: 10 GiB, 10737418240 bytes, 20971520 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes


Disk /dev/sde: 10 GiB, 10737418240 bytes, 20971520 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes

How To Check Hard Disk And Hard Drive Partition In Linux Using cfdisk Command?

cfdisk is a curses-based program for partitioning any block device. The default device is /dev/sda. It provides basic partitioning functionality with a user-friendly interface.

# cfdisk /dev/sdc
                                  Disk: /dev/sdc
                 Size: 10 GiB, 10737418240 bytes, 20971520 sectors
                        Label: dos, identifier: 0x8cc8f9e5

    Device          Boot         Start        End    Sectors   Size   Id Type
>>  /dev/sdc1                     2048    2099199    2097152     1G   83 Linux     
    Free space                 2099200    4196351    2097152     1G
    /dev/sdc3                  4196352    6293503    2097152     1G   83 Linux
    /dev/sdc4                  6293504   20971519   14678016     7G    5 Extended
    ├─/dev/sdc5                6295552    8392703    2097152     1G   83 Linux
    └─Free space               8394752   20971519   12576768     6G



 ┌───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┐
 │ Partition type: Linux (83)                                                    │
 │Filesystem UUID: d17e3c31-e2c9-4f11-809c-94a549bc43b7                          │
 │     Filesystem: ext2                                                          │
 │     Mountpoint: /part1 (mounted)                                              │
 └───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┘
      [Bootable]  [ Delete ]  [  Quit  ]  [  Type  ]  [  Help  ]  [  Write ]
      [  Dump  ]

                       Quit program without writing changes

How To Check Hard Disk And Hard Drive Partition In Linux Using parted Command?

parted is a program to manipulate disk partitions. It supports multiple partition table formats, including MS-DOS and GPT. It is useful for creating space for new operating systems, reorganising disk usage, and copying data to new hard disks.

# parted -l

Model: ATA VBOX HARDDISK (scsi)
Disk /dev/sda: 32.2GB
Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B
Partition Table: msdos
Disk Flags: 

Number  Start   End     Size    Type     File system  Flags
 1      10.7GB  32.2GB  21.5GB  primary  ext4         boot


Model: ATA VBOX HARDDISK (scsi)                                           
Disk /dev/sdb: 10.7GB
Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B
Partition Table: msdos
Disk Flags: 

Model: ATA VBOX HARDDISK (scsi)
Disk /dev/sdc: 10.7GB
Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B
Partition Table: msdos
Disk Flags: 

Number  Start   End     Size    Type      File system  Flags
 1      1049kB  1075MB  1074MB  primary   ext2
 3      2149MB  3222MB  1074MB  primary   ext4
 4      3222MB  10.7GB  7515MB  extended
 5      3223MB  4297MB  1074MB  logical


Model: ATA VBOX HARDDISK (scsi)                                           
Disk /dev/sdd: 10.7GB
Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B
Partition Table: msdos
Disk Flags: 

Model: ATA VBOX HARDDISK (scsi)                                           
Disk /dev/sde: 10.7GB
Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B
Partition Table: msdos
Disk Flags: 

How To Check Hard Disk And Hard Drive Partition In Linux Using lsblk Command?

lsblk lists information about all available or the specified block devices. The lsblk command reads the sysfs filesystem and udev db to gather information.

If the udev db is not available or lsblk is compiled without udev support than it tries to read LABELs, UUIDs and filesystem types from the block device. In this case root permissions are necessary. The command prints all block devices (except RAM disks) in a tree-like format by default.

# lsblk
NAME   MAJ:MIN RM  SIZE RO TYPE MOUNTPOINT
sda      8:0    0   30G  0 disk 
└─sda1   8:1    0   20G  0 part /
sdb      8:16   0   10G  0 disk 
sdc      8:32   0   10G  0 disk 
├─sdc1   8:33   0    1G  0 part /part1
├─sdc3   8:35   0    1G  0 part /part2
├─sdc4   8:36   0    1K  0 part 
└─sdc5   8:37   0    1G  0 part 
sdd      8:48   0   10G  0 disk 
sde      8:64   0   10G  0 disk 
sr0     11:0    1 1024M  0 rom  

How To Check Hard Disk And Hard Drive Partition In Linux Using blkid Command?

blkid is a command-line utility to locate/print block device attributes. It uses libblkid library to get disk partition UUID in Linux system.

# blkid
/dev/sda1: UUID="d92fa769-e00f-4fd7-b6ed-ecf7224af7fa" TYPE="ext4" PARTUUID="eab59449-01"
/dev/sdc1: UUID="d17e3c31-e2c9-4f11-809c-94a549bc43b7" TYPE="ext2" PARTUUID="8cc8f9e5-01"
/dev/sdc3: UUID="ca307aa4-0866-49b1-8184-004025789e63" TYPE="ext4" PARTUUID="8cc8f9e5-03"
/dev/sdc5: PARTUUID="8cc8f9e5-05"

How To Check Hard Disk And Hard Drive Partition In Linux Using hwinfo Command?

hwinfo stands for hardware information tool is another great utility that used to probe for the hardware present in the system and display detailed information about varies hardware components in human readable format.

# hwinfo --block --short
disk:                                                           
  /dev/sdd             VBOX HARDDISK
  /dev/sdb             VBOX HARDDISK
  /dev/sde             VBOX HARDDISK
  /dev/sdc             VBOX HARDDISK
  /dev/sda             VBOX HARDDISK
partition:
  /dev/sdc1            Partition
  /dev/sdc3            Partition
  /dev/sdc4            Partition
  /dev/sdc5            Partition
  /dev/sda1            Partition
cdrom:
  /dev/sr0             VBOX CD-ROM

How To Check Hard Disk And Hard Drive Partition In Linux Using lshw Command?

lshw (stands for Hardware Lister) is a small nifty tool that generates detailed reports about various hardware components on the machine such as memory configuration, firmware version, mainboard configuration, CPU version and speed, cache configuration, usb, network card, graphics cards, multimedia, printers, bus speed, etc.

# lshw -short -class disk -class volume
H/W path        Device      Class       Description
===================================================
/0/3/0.0.0      /dev/cdrom  disk        CD-ROM
/0/4/0.0.0      /dev/sda    disk        32GB VBOX HARDDISK
/0/4/0.0.0/1    /dev/sda1   volume      19GiB EXT4 volume
/0/5/0.0.0      /dev/sdb    disk        10GB VBOX HARDDISK
/0/6/0.0.0      /dev/sdc    disk        10GB VBOX HARDDISK
/0/6/0.0.0/1    /dev/sdc1   volume      1GiB Linux filesystem partition
/0/6/0.0.0/3    /dev/sdc3   volume      1GiB EXT4 volume
/0/6/0.0.0/4    /dev/sdc4   volume      7167MiB Extended partition
/0/6/0.0.0/4/5  /dev/sdc5   volume      1GiB Linux filesystem partition
/0/7/0.0.0      /dev/sdd    disk        10GB VBOX HARDDISK
/0/8/0.0.0      /dev/sde    disk        10GB VBOX HARDDISK

How To Check Hard Disk And Hard Drive Partition In Linux Using inxi Command?

inxi is a nifty tool to check hardware information on Linux and offers wide range of option to get all the hardware information on Linux system that i never found in any other utility which are available in Linux. It was forked from the ancient and mindbendingly perverse yet ingenius infobash, by locsmif.

# inxi -Dp
Drives:    HDD Total Size: 75.2GB (22.3% used)
           ID-1: /dev/sda model: VBOX_HARDDISK size: 32.2GB
           ID-2: /dev/sdb model: VBOX_HARDDISK size: 10.7GB
           ID-3: /dev/sdc model: VBOX_HARDDISK size: 10.7GB
           ID-4: /dev/sdd model: VBOX_HARDDISK size: 10.7GB
           ID-5: /dev/sde model: VBOX_HARDDISK size: 10.7GB
Partition: ID-1: / size: 20G used: 16G (85%) fs: ext4 dev: /dev/sda1
           ID-3: /part1 size: 1008M used: 1.3M (1%) fs: ext2 dev: /dev/sdc1
           ID-4: /part2 size: 976M used: 2.6M (1%) fs: ext4 dev: /dev/sdc3

How To Check Hard Disk And Hard Drive Partition In Linux Using lsscsi Command?

Uses information in sysfs (Linux kernel series 2.6 and later) to list SCSI devices (or hosts) currently attached to the system. Options can be used to control the amount and form of information provided for each device.

By default in this utility device node names (e.g. “/dev/sda” or “/dev/root_disk”) are obtained by noting the major and minor numbers for the listed device obtained from sysfs

# lsscsi
[0:0:0:0]    cd/dvd  VBOX     CD-ROM           1.0   /dev/sr0 
[2:0:0:0]    disk    ATA      VBOX HARDDISK    1.0   /dev/sda 
[3:0:0:0]    disk    ATA      VBOX HARDDISK    1.0   /dev/sdb 
[4:0:0:0]    disk    ATA      VBOX HARDDISK    1.0   /dev/sdc 
[5:0:0:0]    disk    ATA      VBOX HARDDISK    1.0   /dev/sdd 
[6:0:0:0]    disk    ATA      VBOX HARDDISK    1.0   /dev/sde 

How To Check Hard Disk And Hard Drive Partition In Linux Using ProcFS?

The proc filesystem (procfs) is a special filesystem in Unix-like operating systems that presents information about processes and other system information.

It’s sometimes referred to as a process information pseudo-file system. It doesn’t contain ‘real’ files but runtime system information (e.g. system memory, devices mounted, hardware configuration, etc).

# cat /proc/partitions
major minor  #blocks  name

  11        0    1048575 sr0
   8        0   31457280 sda
   8        1   20970496 sda1
   8       16   10485760 sdb
   8       32   10485760 sdc
   8       33    1048576 sdc1
   8       35    1048576 sdc3
   8       36          1 sdc4
   8       37    1048576 sdc5
   8       48   10485760 sdd
   8       64   10485760 sde

How To Check Hard Disk And Hard Drive Partition In Linux Using /dev/disk Path?

This directory contains four directories, it’s by-id, by-uuid, by-path and by-partuuid. Each directory contains some useful information and it’s symlinked with real block device files.

# ls -lh /dev/disk/by-id
total 0
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root  9 Feb  2 23:08 ata-VBOX_CD-ROM_VB0-01f003f6 -> ../../sr0
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root  9 Feb  3 00:14 ata-VBOX_HARDDISK_VB26e827b5-668ab9f4 -> ../../sda
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 Feb  3 00:14 ata-VBOX_HARDDISK_VB26e827b5-668ab9f4-part1 -> ../../sda1
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root  9 Feb  2 23:39 ata-VBOX_HARDDISK_VB3774c742-fb2b3e4e -> ../../sdd
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root  9 Feb  2 23:39 ata-VBOX_HARDDISK_VBe72672e5-029a918e -> ../../sdc
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 Feb  2 23:39 ata-VBOX_HARDDISK_VBe72672e5-029a918e-part1 -> ../../sdc1
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 Feb  2 23:39 ata-VBOX_HARDDISK_VBe72672e5-029a918e-part3 -> ../../sdc3
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 Feb  2 23:39 ata-VBOX_HARDDISK_VBe72672e5-029a918e-part4 -> ../../sdc4
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 Feb  2 23:39 ata-VBOX_HARDDISK_VBe72672e5-029a918e-part5 -> ../../sdc5
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root  9 Feb  2 23:39 ata-VBOX_HARDDISK_VBed1cf451-9f51c5f6 -> ../../sdb
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root  9 Feb  2 23:39 ata-VBOX_HARDDISK_VBf242dbdd-49a982eb -> ../../sde

Output of by-uuid

# ls -lh /dev/disk/by-uuid
total 0
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 Feb  2 23:39 ca307aa4-0866-49b1-8184-004025789e63 -> ../../sdc3
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 Feb  2 23:39 d17e3c31-e2c9-4f11-809c-94a549bc43b7 -> ../../sdc1
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 Feb  3 00:14 d92fa769-e00f-4fd7-b6ed-ecf7224af7fa -> ../../sda1

Output of by-path

# ls -lh /dev/disk/by-path
total 0
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root  9 Feb  2 23:08 pci-0000:00:01.1-ata-1 -> ../../sr0
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root  9 Feb  3 00:14 pci-0000:00:0d.0-ata-1 -> ../../sda
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 Feb  3 00:14 pci-0000:00:0d.0-ata-1-part1 -> ../../sda1
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root  9 Feb  2 23:39 pci-0000:00:0d.0-ata-2 -> ../../sdb
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root  9 Feb  2 23:39 pci-0000:00:0d.0-ata-3 -> ../../sdc
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 Feb  2 23:39 pci-0000:00:0d.0-ata-3-part1 -> ../../sdc1
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 Feb  2 23:39 pci-0000:00:0d.0-ata-3-part3 -> ../../sdc3
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 Feb  2 23:39 pci-0000:00:0d.0-ata-3-part4 -> ../../sdc4
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 Feb  2 23:39 pci-0000:00:0d.0-ata-3-part5 -> ../../sdc5
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root  9 Feb  2 23:39 pci-0000:00:0d.0-ata-4 -> ../../sdd
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root  9 Feb  2 23:39 pci-0000:00:0d.0-ata-5 -> ../../sde

Output of by-partuuid

# ls -lh /dev/disk/by-partuuid
total 0
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 Feb  2 23:39 8cc8f9e5-01 -> ../../sdc1
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 Feb  2 23:39 8cc8f9e5-03 -> ../../sdc3
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 Feb  2 23:39 8cc8f9e5-04 -> ../../sdc4
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 Feb  2 23:39 8cc8f9e5-05 -> ../../sdc5
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 Feb  3 00:14 eab59449-01 -> ../../sda1

Vinoth Kumar

Vinoth Kumar has 3.5+ years of experience in Linux server administration & RHEL certified professional. He is currently working as a Senior L2 Linux Server administrator.

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